We are familiar with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in healthcare, education, criminology, and social policy, but what about business management?
Many management interventions are generic, covering the whole of an organisation. I came across a really interesting RCT of such an intervention recently where whole factories were randomised. The factories were textile organisations in India, and the intervention was to have, or not have, management consultant support. I have always had a rather nihilistic impression of the consultancy industry, but it looks as though I might have been wrong, as the intervention sites performed slightly better than the control sites in terms of an increase in productivity in the first year (17%), and the opening of more production plants (0.259 on average) within three years.
–Richard Lilford, Director of CLAHRC WM
 Lilford RJ, Chilton PJ, Hemming K, Girling AJ, Taylor CA, Barach P. Evaluating policy and service interventions: framework to guide selection and interpretation of study end points. BMJ. 2010;341:c4413.
 Bloom N, Eifert B, Mahajan A, McKenzie D, Roberts J. Does Management Matter? Evidence from India. Q J Econ. 2013; 128(1):1-51.