Cluster Trial of Home Visits for Newborn Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Forty percent of childhood deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) take place within the first month after birth. Trials conducted in Asia have shown that an intervention whereby home-visits are made over this crucial period of life is effective. Would it work in Africa? To find out, Betty Kirkwood and colleagues randomised 197 clusters in Ghana to intervention and control.[1] Mothers in the intervention clusters were to receive two home visits in pregnancy and three in the first week after birth. Coverage was good and the proportion of mothers who adopted health promoting behaviours increased. These behaviours included use of anti-mosquito bed-nets, timely transfer to a facility when appropriate, breastfeeding, ‘kangaroo’ care, delayed bathing of the baby, and hand-washing. Reductions in neonatal mortality observed in this trial alone were not significant, but a significant 12% reduction in mortality was estimated when the data were combined with those from the Asian trials in a meta-analysis. The CLAHRC WM Director could not find out whether the study was rural or urban. Trials of women’s groups [2] provide positive results in rural areas but not slums. It would be interesting to examine the effect of place of residence further since half of all African people will soon be urban, and more than half of those people will live in slums.

— Richard Lilford, CLAHRC WM Director


  1. Kirkwood BR, Manu A, ten Asbroek AHA, et al. Effect of the Newhints home-visits intervention on neonatal mortality rate and care practices in Ghana: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013; 381(9884): 2184-92.
  2. Prost A, Colbourn T, Seward N, et al. Women’s groups practising participatory learning and action to improve maternal and newborn health in resource-limited settings: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2013; 381(9879): 1736-46.



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