There is little doubt that highly educated men are less likely than poorly educated men to perpetrate violence against their partners, and that highly educated women are less likely than poorly educated women to get pregnant in their teens. But what is going on here – which way does causality run? Certainly, an educated man is likely to earn more than one less educated. More money means less stress, and since stress is a harbinger of partner violence, it is plausible that education leads to less violence through this mediating (intervening) variable. Alternatively, the kind of person who acquires education may be the sort of person who is less innately pre-disposed to violence than a person who does not acquire education. A person who seeks out education may have greater mental resources, such that a wider range of responses are available to him – and hence he is less likely to lash out. But could it be that education per se increases moral rectitude, even when the education is not targeted at moral behaviour? One can devise a theory for such an effect. Algebra, history and other ‘academic’ subjects exercise the capacity for abstract thought. Could the capacity spill over from the topic of instruction to influence behaviour more generally? Compassion, for example, is abstract – it requires the ability to imagine what another person is feeling. Teaching abstract academic subjects may spill over in to heightened sensitivity to the suffering of others. This hypothesis could be tested neurophysiologically – highly educated persons, on average, may manifest greater specific responses on functional neuro-imaging than those of similar IQ, but lower educational attainment, when confronted with a compassion-arousing event. The brain, after all, is a learning machine that is permanently altered by education. This might explain why sex education has a rather small effect on teenage pregnancy, but being educated is associated with a large effect. It is sometimes said that education refers to what is left when all the facts have been forgotten, or to quote BF Skinner more accurately, “Education is what survives when what has been learnt has been forgotten”?
— Richard Lilford, CLAHRC WM Director
- Abramsky T, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C, et al. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 109.
- Girma S & Paton D. Is education the best contraception: The case of teenage pregnancy in England? Soc Sci Med. 2015; 131: 1-9.