Breastfeeding and SIDS

Over the years many studies have shown an association between breastfeeding and decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), with a previous meta-analysis showing an adjusted odds ratio of 0.55 (95% CI 0.44-0.69), which increased to 0.27 (95% CI 0.24-0.31) with exclusive breastfeeding.[1] However, it has been difficult to identify just how long breastfeeding needs to continue to realise this benefit. This is because duration of breastfeeding has not been correlated with reduction in risk. As a follow-up to their original meta-analysis, Thompson and colleagues worked in cooperation with the authors of the included studies to obtain individual-level data.[2] They were able to glean information on duration of breastfeeding so that the association between duration and effect could be examined. In total 9,104 infants were analysed from eight case-control studies. Although analysis showed some protection against SIDS associated with any breastfeeding up to 2 months, this was not statistically significant after controlling for potential confounders. When confounders were controlled for, analysis found that any breastfeeding for at least 2 months, compared to no breastfeeding, had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.60 (95% CI 0.44-0.82), while it was a similar aOR of 0.61 (95% CI 0.42-0.87) for exclusive breastfeeding. The aOR for any amount of breastfeeding compared to none improved with increased duration – an aOR of 0.40 (95% CI 0.26-0.63) with 4-6 months breastfeeding, and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.61) with at least 6 months breastfeeding. A similar improvement was seen with at least 4 months of exclusive breastfeeding (aOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.74).

In order to lower the incidence of SIDS it is important that new mothers are encouraged to breastfeed and to continue for at least 2 months, even if they are unable to do so exclusively, as any amount of breastfeeding seems to confer more protection than none.

— Peter Chilton, Research Fellow

References:

  1. Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011; 128(1): 103–10
  2. Thompson JMD, Tanabe K, Moon RY, Mitchell EA, McGarvey C, Tappin D, Blair PS, Hauck FR. Duration of Breastfeeding and Risk of SIDS: An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017: e20171324.
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