There is a strong international, national and local initiative to develop services generically by integrating care across multiple providers and many diseases, rather than to focus exclusively on disease ‘silos’. However, integrating care across providers runs into immediate problems because the interests of these different providers are seldom aligned. For instance, providing care in the community may reduce earnings in a hospital where money follows patients.
Integrating care across multiple providers can take different forms, which might play out in different ways. The least radical solution would consist of informal alliances to help plan services. At the other end of the scale organisations merge into common legal entities with consolidated budgets (so-called Responsible Care organisations). Between these two extremes lie formal structures, but where the budgets and legal responsibility remain with local providers.
The Sustainability and Transformation Partnerships (STPs) in England are a good example of the intermediate arrangement. They are part of official government policy, have some funding, and have generated considerable local buy-in.
However, the interests of local providers cannot be overridden by the STP. It is tempting to say that they are unlikely to be very successful given that, inevitably, the interests of the different organisations are not the same. However, there is some evidence that this might not be the inevitable, dismal outcome. The evidence comes from Elinor Ostrom, Nobel Prize winner for economics. We have cited her work previously within this news blog. She describes the conditions under which collaboration can take place, even when the interests of the collaborating organisations are imperfectly aligned:
- Clearly defined boundaries.
- Congruence between appropriation/provision rules and local conditions.
- Collective choice arrangements.
- Graduated sanctions.
- Conflict-resolution mechanisms.
- Local autonomy.
- Nested enterprises (polycentric governance).
Ostrom’s work was carried out in the context of protection of the environment; fisheries, farms, oceans, forests and the like. So, it would be extremely interesting to examine STP using Ostrom’s findings as an investigative lens. Working with CLAHRC London we plan to conduct numerous case studies of STPs that exhibit different features or philosophies. We expect that we will uncover differences in structure and culture that play out differently in different places. Among other things, we will see whether we can replicate Ostrom’s findings in a health care context. On this basis, we may be able to develop a tool that could help predict how well an organisation, such as an STP, is working. In the long-term we would examine (any) correlation in adherence with Ostrom’s criteria and the overall success of an STP.
Of course, this is not an easy topic for study. That is precisely why we think it is a good topic for a capacity development centre, such as a CLAHRC, to tackle. There is an inverse relationship between the importance of a topic, and its tractability. This is where various tools that we have developed, such as Bayesian networks, come into their own. These tools make intractable subjects, such as evaluating the success of STPs, a little more tractable.
— Richard Lilford, CLAHRC WM Director
- Lilford RJ. Polycentric Organisations. NIHR CLAHRC West Midlands News Blog. 25 July 2014.
- Ostrom E. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Actions. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; 1990.