In the latest News Blog  (before the election purdah) I covered Case and Deaton’s monumental study of death rates among white people in the US. I briefly mentioned the idea that childhood (and even pre-natal) exposure can ‘programme’ the body, leading to mortality differences in later life. This can lead to exaggerated estimates of the effects of economic conditions and behaviours in later life on health and life expectancy. There is strong evidence that patterns of behaviour in adulthood are laid down by the age of three. Failure to give due consideration to prior conditions can also lead to poor interpretation of life expectancy statistics. Life expectancy (say at birth) is derived, perforce, from the current age-specific mortality rates at all (subsequent) ages. So there is an assumption that when a baby born in 2017 reaches age 40, she or he will be subject to the current mortality rates for 40 year olds, and so on. That is a massive assumption, given the above point concerning early childhood effects on adult health.
The subject of wealth and health is replete with academic bear traps. Mortality is rising among poor white people, as we pointed out in a previous News Blog. But then the composition of poor white people changes over time. So the mortality of poor white 40 year old women cannot automatically be ascribed to any recent change in the behaviours or exposures of such women. It could be attributable to their early life exposures. Likewise, Hispanic children have been dropping out of school in the US at progressively lower rates. So any observation comparing the health of drop-outs over time is highly biased – the same types of people are not being compared. And when it comes to ethnicity, things get harder still because the way ethnic groups are classified is ephemeral.
Currie and Schwandt use counties in the US as the basis for comparative statistics. They use three year averages to reduce noise, and they measure the socio-economic standards of counties in different ways – poverty rates, high-school completion rates, and median income. They look at age-specific death rates, life expectancy (as a consolidated measure of death rates over all ages), and age/sex adjusted differences by race.
What do they find in their study covering the years 1990-2010?
- Life expectancy is increasing across the US, but us doing so to a greater extent in poorer areas than in richer ones.
- This relative improvement in poor counties compared to rich counties is seen particularly among women.
- And in children under the age of five (see a previous News Blog ).
- Inequalities in death rates in young adults are also declining.
- But over age 50, inequalities in mortality increased for women while remaining unchanged in men.
- For black children, inequalities narrowed compared to white children.
- The increased health inequality of white adults cited in our last News Blog is confirmed (phew!).
There are other interesting findings. I would have thought that immigrants would have worse outcomes than age and race matched residents, but the opposite is the case – at least for Hispanic people. A massive study of identical twins separated at birth would be needed to sort out cause and effect relationships (and even that would not be perfect). However, taken in the round, the news from the USA is good regarding inequalities; poor white people aside. Let me therefore end with a quote from the article – you can make of it what you will:
“It sometimes seems as if the research literature on mortality is compelled in some way to emphasize a negative message, either about a group that is doing less well or about some aspect of inequality that is rising.”
— Richard Lilford, CLAHRC WM Director
- Lilford RJ. Ever Increasing Life Expectancies Come to an Abrupt End Among American Whites. NIHR CLAHRC West Midlands News Blog. 5 May 2017.
- Case A, & Deaton A. Mortality and morbidity in the 21st century. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. BPEA Conference Drafts. March 23-24, 2017.
- Suzuki E, & Fantom N. What does “life expectancy at birth” really mean? The DATA Blog. 11 November 2013.
- Lilford RJ. More on Brain Health in Young Children and Effect on Life Course. NIHR CLAHRC West Midlands News Blog. 24 February 2017.
- Chetty R, Stepner M, Abraham S, et al. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. JAMA. 2016; 315(6):1750-66.
- Lilford RJ. Relative Wealth and Health. NIHR CLAHRC West Midlands News Blog. 6 May 2016.
- Currie J & Schwandt H. Mortality Inequality: The Good News from a County-Level Approach. J Econ Perspect. 2016; 30(2): 29-52.